The Electrical System

    If you enjoy solving puzzles, you probably will enjoy curing your car’s electrical problems.

    car’s electrical wiring system starts at battery and reaches to all parts of the car. The ignition system, the starting system, and the charging system are parts of it.
    We will be looking into the basic wiring harness, test procedures, and horns and buzzers.

    With minor variations, all cars are wired the same. Heavy battery cables serve the starting circuit; the charging system wiring and the car’s electrical wiring system are attached to these cables. The wires are wrapped together into a harness for neat ness and protection. From the’ harness, wires branch off toward the ignition switch, charging system regulator, and other electrical components. You rarely need to cut into the wiring harness to cure an electrical problem.

    Wires are color-coded to help you trace them throughout the car. Sometimes, having the car’s wiring diagram is helpful when you work on an electrical problem. Though the diagram usually does not show the actual wire routings, it does indicate wire color-coding.

    Lights and accessories branch off this routing. Their supply wires fasten to them through terminals and sockets. Any troubles traced to these componencal system in the modern Carts are usually solved by replacing bulbs or repairing or replacing motors. ;

    The ground circuit is the final part of a car’s electrical wiring. Unlike house wiring, which comprises a “hot” wire to feed power and a white neutral wire to complete the circuit, car wiring completes most circuits through the car body, frame, ground cable, and back to the battery. That is called the ground circuit. Nearly every light, relay, motor, and solenoid is grounded to the car’s body or frame to complete its circuit.

    Poor grounding is a common source of auto electrical troubles. If the ground circuit is incomplete somewhere along the line, the circuit will fail just as though its insulated feed wire had been cut. Ground circuits fail through loosening and corrosion of fastenings. Continuity of the ground circuit must be considered when ever looking for an electrical malfunction. Fortunately, it is an easy check.

    In today’s auto advancements, it would be a good idea to acquires an extensive knowledge of electronics. You have to troubleshoot everything from control modules to sold state relays

    Autobody Basics and what tools needed

    Repairing a wrecked car can be either easy or difficult, depending entirely upon how stubborn the mechanic wants to be. He can think it through first, considering the point of impact, direction of force, method of repair, etc. — and he will save many hours of hard labor. Or he can leap into the repair on a purely mechanical scale, letting one foot follow the other — and he will spin his wheels unnecessarily. Learning to think about the job is just as important as learning the skills involved. While this site is not intended as a step-by-step experience in body straightening procedure, we will cover enough of the material to give the automotive enthusiast a good grounding in fundamentals.

    To the junior body man, whether he plans on making a simple repair or an extensive modification, the question of just how big a job to tackle invariably crops up in the light of reality after the initial glow of enthusiasm subsides. It is one thing to dream of building a radical custom or restoring a damaged car, and quite another to actually do the work successfully. Still, because body work is a step-by-step proposition, whether straightening a fender or making a custom grille, the average enthusiast can expect to achieve at least acceptable results if he plans well and takes time with the work. Unlike building a high-performance engine, the hot-rodder chopping a top can see immediate results as he progresses.

    There is much that can be learned about a damaged panel during the initial inspection, and the following hints will apply to all types of collision damage. First, locate the point, or points, of initial impact. Then decide if there are two or more points of impact. It so, are they equal or is there a significant major impact point with others secondary? How are the secondary areas of impact related to each other, and will repair of any area be related to the others. Should any specific area be repaired first? When looking at a collision damage, categorize the type of damage involved (buckles, displaced metal, etc. and then decide how each will be best repaired.

    The next step is to decide what tools and equipment is needed. Will you sub-contract some of the work. When it comes to frame work and painting, it is usually a good idea to let the pro’s handle that end of it.You might be able to handle some frame horn damage or light spot paint repairs. The heavier work takes more advanced equipment the home hobbyist wouldn’t have. I will try to give you an idea what materials and techniques are in the trade

    Servicing Your Brakes

    Some auto experts feel that brakes are a part of the car that do-it-yourselfers should leave alone, since the results of a mistake could be tragic. After reading this, you yourself must decide whether you can safely perform brake servicing and repairs. Even if you decide against tackling such work, at least you should be able to detect brake problems sooner than the average motorist.

    A brake is simply a heat machine that transforms energy stored up in a moving vehicle into heat. The amount of heat varies according to the square of the vehicle’s speed. Double the speed and you get four times the heat.

    A single stop from 70 mph by a 4,000- pound car produces 840 BTU (British Thermal Units, a standard measure of heat quantity). You would have to burn almost 1,000 wooden kitchen matches to generate that much heat. During one such stop, the temperature of wheel brake parts can rise by 200°. Make several stops in quick succession, without allowing time for cooling, and your brakes may not be able to cope with the heat that is generated.

    It seems that brake technology and materials are getting better and better as vehicles are built to last longer and longer. The basic principles are the same They all use a hydraulic fluid to transfer force to a friction material, in turn stops the vehicle. In this Web Site , I will try to explain enough of the basics for you to tackle your own vehicle.

    brake lines diagram

    This is a image of a basic Brake System of old.

    There are many combinations of components in the newer brake systems and I will touch base on as many as I can. In the links, I broke them down to more specific components.

    In the links above you can go to the troubleshooting link to help diagnose any brake related problem and in the safety link to see any requirement for the government safeties.

         Hydraulic brakes. For years, cars have used effective, dependable hydraulic brakes. These are built around a master cylinder with a pressure piston that is worked by a foot brake pedal. As you step down on the pedal, the piston in the master cylinder forces brake fluid through a system of thin steel brake lines and tough rubber hoses to each wheel. The hydraulic brake system works well because the brake fluid pressure is transmitted equally to all wheels.

    In power brakes, master-cylinder hydraulic pressure is boosted by engine vacuum.

    Since 1967, all U.S.-built cars have had dual hydraulic systems. In such systems, the master cylinder contains two pistons and two sets of brake lines. One set of hydraulic lines goes to the front wheels, the other set to the rear wheels. In many of the modern systems they are divided diagonally.  If one system should suffer a hydraulic failure, the other system could still stop the car—though, of course, not as quickly.

    At the wheels, hydraulic wheel cylinders react to the pressure by pushing lined “shoes” outward against a rotating brake drum, or by pinching a rotating disc between lined pads or shoes. The friction of the brake linings on the drums or discs slows the wheels. Friction of the tires against the road brings the car to a stop.

    A “complete” job. Brake experts do not agree on just what items should be included in a complete brake relining. One thing is certain: No shop can perform a complete, safe brake job for $19.95. A cheap brake job is like a cheap parachute.

    The brakes should always be relined on both sides of the axle or, better yet, on all four wheels.

    A good job, according to most experts, should also include turning all brake drums, whether or not they are badly worn. If little wear or out-of-round is found in a drum, only a light clean-up cut need be taken. Some reputable shops, however, do not normally turn drums unless they are badly worn or out-of-round.

    manual brake system